Engineers are people that solve problems with the help of math and science. For natural disasters, they design and construct buildings meant to protect people during a disaster. For example, they design buildings that can withstand an earthquake.
Both earthquakes and volcanoes form along plate boundaries. An earthquake is caused by sudden movements in the plates that make up Earth’s crust. Also, at these areas where the plates meet is the ideal place for molten rock to flow the surface and form a volcano!
One important consideration is the height of the building. When a building is very tall and heavy it can crumble or topple over. A building that is closer to the ground can better withstand the shaking.
These natural disasters begin far off in the ocean. They are big waves that occur when there is an abrupt movement on the ocean floor, usually caused by an underwater earthquake. This means tsunamis originate near plate boundaries.
Some building materials are able to resist the shaking of earthquakes due to their properties. Concrete is not the best material to use because it can crack as Earth shakes during an earthquake. This type of cracking can weaken structures, which can be dangerous to living things.