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Minnesota Standards Alignment

We Cover 94% of the Academic Standards in Minnesota.

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Generation Genius LessonStateStandardsGradeState IDBenchmarkSort
Weathering & Erosion;MNAcademic Standards44E.1.2.1.1Make observations and measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by the forces of water, ice, wind, or vegetation.* (P:  3, CC: 2, CI: ESS2) Emphasis is on predicting the rate of change when variables are changed. Examples of variables to test may include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, speed of wind, relative rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of water flow.2
Weather vs. Climate;MNAcademic Standards22E.4.2.1.2Obtain and use information from multiple sources, including electronic sources, to describe climates in different regions of the world.** (P: 8, CC: 1, CI: ESS2) Emphasis of the practice is on learning how to use electronic sources to integrate and evaluate content. Examples of information may include data on an area’s typical weather conditions and how these patterns are considered climate. 1
Wave Reflection, Absorption & Transmittance;MNAcademic Standards88P.2.2.1.1Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.  (P: 5, CC: 1, CI: PS4) Emphasis is on describing waves (standard repeating waves) with both qualitative and quantitative thinking. Not included is electromagnetic waves.3
Wave Reflection, Absorption & Transmittance;MNAcademic Standards88P.3.1.1.4Develop and use a model to qualitatively describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. (P: 2, CC: 4, CI: PS4)  Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models may include drawings, simulations, a storyboard/diagram and written descriptions.3
Water Quality & Distribution;MNAcademic Standards44E.2.2.1.1Interpret charts, maps and/or graphs of the amounts of salt water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.** (P: 5, CC: 4, CI: ESS2) Emphasis is on oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, ground water, and polar ice caps. 2
Water Cycle (3-5 Version); Water Quality & Distribution;MNAcademic Standards44E.1.1.1.2Ask questions about how water moves through the Earth system and identify the type of question. (P: 1, CC: 5, CI: ESS2) Emphasis is on the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. Examples of types of questions may include those that can be tested by an experiment, and questions that may answered from a text.2
Variations of Traits;MNAcademic Standards33L.3.2.1.1Construct an explanation using evidence from various sources for how the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing. (P: 6, CC: 2. CI: LS4) Examples of cause and effect relationships may include how individual plants of the same species with different length thorns may be more or less likely to be eaten by predators; or animals that have better camouflage coloration than others of their species may be more likely to survive and therefore more likely to leave offspring.2
Variations of Traits;MNAcademic Standards44L.4.2.1.2Obtain information from various media sources to determine that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms.**  (P: 8, CC: 1, CI: LS3) Emphasis of the practice is to compare and/or combine information across texts and other reliable media. Emphasis is on organisms other than humans and the patterns in traits between offspring and their parents or among siblings.2
Timescale of Earth's Events;MNAcademic Standards11E.2.2.1.1Use quantitative data to identify and describe patterns in the amount of time it takes for Earth processes to occur and determine whether they occur quickly or slowly.  (P: 5, CC: 7, CI: ESS1) Emphasis of the core idea is that some Earth processes happen quickly (like tornadoes and thunderstorms) and some slowly (like the erosion of soil). Examples of data may include firsthand observations data from books, videos, pictures, or  historical photos. 1
Water Cycle (6-8 Version)MNAcademic Standards66E.3.1.1.3Develop a model, based on observational and experimental evidence, to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity. (P: 2, CC: 5, CI: ESS2)  Emphasis of the practice is on developing a way to represent the mechanisms of water changing state, the global movements of water and energy, and on how the observational and experimental evidence supports the model. Examples of models may be conceptual or physical.3
The Solar System;MNAcademic Standards66E.1.1.1.1Ask questions that arise from observations of patterns in the movement of night sky objects to test the limitations of a solar system model. (P: 1, CC: 1, CI: ESS1) Emphasis is on students questioning the limitations of their own models and questioning the kinds of revisions needed to account for new data. Examples of observations may include the student’s own observations or observations made by others. Examples of night sky objects include the Moon, constellations, and planets. 3
The Solar System;MNAcademic Standards66E.2.1.1.1Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences among features and processes occurring on solar system objects. (P: 4, CC: 3, CI: ESS1)  Examples of objects may include moons, planets, comets or asteroids. Example features may include characteristics of an object's atmosphere, surface or interior. Examples of processes may include erosion, deposition, cratering, or volcanism.3
The Solar System;MNAcademic Standards66E.3.1.1.1Develop and use scale models of solar system objects to describe the sizes of objects, the location of objects, and the motion of the objects; and include the role that gravity and inertia play in controlling that motion. (P: 2, CC: 3, CI: ESS1)  Emphasis is on the regularity of the motion and accounting for Earth-based visual observations of the motion of these objects in our sky. Emphasis is also on recognizing the limitations of any of the models. Examples may include physical models (such as the analogy of distance along a football field or computer visualizations of orbits) or conceptual models (such as mathematical proportions relative to the size of familiar objects such as students' school or state). Not included are Kepler’s Laws and retrograde motion of planets.3
The Fossil Record;MNAcademic Standards77L.2.1.1.2Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth. (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: LS4) Emphasis is on finding patterns of changes in the level of complexity of anatomical structures in organisms and the chronological order of fossil appearance in the rock layers.3
Tectonic Plates; The Fossil Record;MNAcademic Standards66E.2.1.1.2Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils, rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of past plate motions. (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: ESS2) Examples of data may include similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents, the shapes of the continents (including the continental shelves), and the locations of ocean floor features such as ridges and trenches.3
Tectonic Plates;MNAcademic Standards66E.4.1.1.1Construct an argument, supported by evidence, for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales. (P: 7, CC: 3, CI: ESS2) Emphasis is on how processes like erosion, deposition, mountain building, and volcanism affect the surface of Earth. Some processes, like mountain building take a long time. Other processes, like landslides, happen quickly. Examples may include how weathering, erosion and glacial activity have shaped the surface of Minnesota.3
Synthetic Materials;MNAcademic Standards88P.4.2.1.1Gather and evaluate information from multiple sources to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society. (P: 8, CC: 6, CI: PS1) Emphasis of the practice is to synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy and possible bias of each publication. Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials may include plastic, medicines, foods, and alternative fuels.3
Sunlight Warms the Earth;MNAcademic StandardsK0P.1.2.1.1Collect and organize observational data to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface. (P: 3, CC: 2, CI: PS3, ETS2) Examples of Earth’s surface may include sand, soil, rocks, and water. Data may be organized in pictographs or bar graphs. Examples of observations may include heating, growth of plants,  melting of snow, and shadows.1
Sunlight Warms the Earth;MNAcademic StandardsK0P.3.2.2.1Design and build a structure to reduce the warming effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.* (P: 6, CC: 2, CI: PS3, ETS1) Emphasis of the practice is on choosing appropriate materials and tools to solve a problem. Emphasis of the core idea is on understanding the heating effects of sunlight. Examples of structures may  include umbrellas, canopies, and tents.1
Sunlight Warms the Earth;MNAcademic StandardsK0P.4.2.2.1Communicate design ideas for a structure that reduces the warming effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.* (P: 8, CC: 2, CI: PS3, ETS1) Examples of written designs include models, drawings, writing, or numbers.n/a1
Sun & Other Stars;MNAcademic Standards55E.4.1.1.1Use evidence to support an argument that the apparent brightness of the sun and stars is due to their relative distances from Earth. (P: 7, CC: 3, CI: ESS1) Evidence may include analogies of light bulbs and distances.2
Structure of Living Things;MNAcademic Standards33L.4.2.1.1Obtain information from various types of media to support an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.** (P: 8, CC: 4, CI: LS1) Examples of structures may include thorns, stems, roots, colored petals, heart, stomach, lungs, brain, and skin. Examples of media may include electronic sources.2
Solar & Lunar Eclipses;MNAcademic Standards66E.4.2.2.1Communicate how a series of models, including those used by Minnesota American Indian Tribes and communities and other cultures, are used to explain how motion in the Earth-Sun-Moon system causes the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses and seasons. (P: 8, CC: 1, CI: ESS1)  Examples of cultures may include those within the local context of the learning community and within the context of Minnesota. Emphasis is on students questioning the limitations of their models and revising them to account for new observations. Models may be physical, graphical or conceptual.3
Rocks & Minerals (Including Rock Cycle)MNAcademic Standards66E.3.1.1.2Develop a model, based on observational evidence, to describe the cycling and movement of Earth's rock material and the energy that drives these processes. (P: 2, CC: 5, CI: ESS2)  Emphasis of the practice is on using observations of processes like weathering and erosion of soil and rock, deposition of sediment, and crystallization of lava to inform model development. Emphasis of the core idea is on how these processes operate over geologic time to form rocks and minerals through the cycling of Earth’s materials. Examples of models may be conceptual or physical.3
Rock Layers (Geologic Time)MNAcademic Standards66E.1.1.1.2Ask questions to examine an interpretation about the relative ages of different rock layers within a sequence of several rock layers. (P: 1, CC: 1, CI: ESS1) Emphasis is on the interpretation of rock layers using geologic principles like superposition and cross-cutting relationships. 3
Rock Layers (Geologic Time)MNAcademic Standards66E.3.2.1.1Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's 4.6-billion-year-old history. (P: 6, CC: 3, CI: ESS1) Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth's history. Examples of major events may include the evolution or extinction of particular organisms, the formation of mountain chains and the formation of ocean basins. Not included is using radioactive decay to age date rocks.3
Reproduction of Living Things;MNAcademic Standards77L.3.1.1.4Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. (P: 2, CC: 2, CI: LS3) Emphasis is on using models, such as Punnett squares, diagrams, and simulations to describe the cause and effect relationship of gene transmission from parent(s) to offspring and resulting genetic variations.3
Renewable vs. Non-Renewable Resources;MNAcademic Standards44E.4.2.1.1Read and comprehend grade appropriate complex texts and/or other reliable media to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment. (P: 8, CC: 2, CI: ESS3, ETS2) Examples of information about natural resources should  include details about those found in Minnesota. Examples of renewable energy resources may include wind, water behind dams, and sunlight; non-renewable energy resources include fossil fuels and fissile materials. Examples of environmental effects may include loss of habitat due to dams, loss of habitat due to surface mining, and air pollution and global warming from burning fossil fuels.2
Reducing Our Impact on Earth;MNAcademic Standards11E.4.2.1.1Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.* (P: 8, CC: 4, CI: ESS3) Examples of human actions that impact the land may include cutting trees to produce paper, using resources to produce bottles, and using water for bathing and brushing teeth. Examples of solutions may include reusing paper and recycling cans and bottles.1
Pushes & Pulls; Patterns of Motion & Friction;MNAcademic Standards22P.1.1.1.1Ask questions about an object’s motion based on observation, that can be answered by an investigation. (P: 1, CC: 1, CI: PS2)   Examples of questions may include what is causing the motion, what type of motion (circular, bouncing, etc.) and what changes are happening in the motion.1
Pushes & Pulls;MNAcademic StandardsK0P.2.2.1.1Identify and describe patterns that emerge from the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.** (P: 5, CC: 2, CI: PS2) Emphasis is on different relative strengths or different directions, but not both at the same time. Examples of pushes or pulls may include a string attached to an object being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, and two objects colliding and pushing on each other. 1
Pushes & Pulls;MNAcademic StandardsK0P.4.1.1.1Construct an argument supported by evidence for whether a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.* (P: 7, CC: 2, CI: PS2, ETS1)  Examples of problems requiring a solution may include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples of solutions may include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball to turn.1
Properties of Matter;MNAcademic Standards55P.1.2.1.3Evaluate appropriate methods and tools to identify materials based on their properties prior to investigation. (P: 3, CC: 3, CI: PS1) Examples of materials to be identified may include baking soda and other powders, metals, minerals, and liquids. Examples of properties may include color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, ability to conduct heat, response to magnetic forces, and solubility; density is not intended as an identifiable property.2
Properties of Elements;MNAcademic Standards88P.1.1.1.1Ask questions about locations of common elements on the periodic table to note patterns in the properties of similarly grouped elements. (P: 1, CC: 1, CI: PS1)  Emphasis is on the similar properties within columns of the periodic table. Examples of questions that students may think to ask may include how are the properties of elements in a column similar and different.3
Predicting Natural Disasters;MNAcademic Standards66E.2.1.1.3Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.* (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: ESS3, ETS1)  Examples of natural hazards may be taken from interior processes (such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), surface processes (such as mass wasting and tsunamis), or severe weather events. Examples of data may include the locations, magnitudes, and frequencies of the natural hazards. Examples of technologies may include building tornado shelters or barriers to protect from flooding.3
Potential vs. Kinetic Energy; Newton’s Laws of Motion;MNAcademic Standards88P.4.1.1.2Compare and evaluate evidence to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. (P: 7, CC: 5, CI: PS3)  Examples of empirical evidence used in the students' arguments may include the temperature or motion of an object before and after an energy transfer.3
Potential vs. Kinetic Energy;MNAcademic Standards88P.2.1.1.2Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationship of kinetic energy to the mass and speed of an object. (P: 4, CC: 3, CI: PS3)  Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples may include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a Wiffle ball versus a tennis ball.3
Potential vs. Kinetic Energy;MNAcademic Standards88P.3.1.1.3Develop and revise a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.  (P: 2, CC: 5, CI: PS3) Emphasis is on relative amounts potential energy and not on calculations of potential energy. Examples of objects within systems interacting at varying distances may include: the Earth and either a roller coaster cart at varying positions on a hill or objects at varying heights on shelves, changing the direction/orientation of a magnet, and a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate’s hair. Examples of models may include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems.3
Pollination & Seed Dispersal;MNAcademic Standards22L.3.2.2.1Engineer a device that mimics the structures and functions of plants or animals in seed dispersal.* (P: 6, CC: 6, CI: LS2, ETS1) Emphasis is on how specific structures have particular functions. Examples of seed dispersal by animals may include feeding and subsequent elimination of seeds, or attachment of seeds/pollen to animal structures. Examples of seed dispersal by plants may include various wind-catching designs (as in dandelions or maple trees) or colors and smells that attract pollinators.1
Plants Need Water & Light; Animals Need Food;MNAcademic StandardsK0L.2.1.1.3Record and use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive.** (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: LS1)  Examples of patterns may include that animals need to take in food, but plants do not; different animals need different kinds of food; plants require light; and that all living things need water.1
Plant Growth Conditions;MNAcademic Standards33L.1.2.1.2Plan and conduct an investigation to determine how amounts of sunlight and water impact the growth of a plant. (P: 3, CC:2, CI: LS2) Emphasis of the practice is on conducting fair tests and using data to support explanations. Examples of investigations may include simple experiments with fast-growing plants. 2
Plant & Animal Cells;MNAcademic Standards77L.3.1.1.1Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and describe the way cell parts contribute to the cell’s function. (P: 2, CC: 6, CI: LS1) Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.3
Photosynthesis & Respiration;MNAcademic Standards77L.3.2.1.2Construct an explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms. (P: 6, CC: 2, CI: LS1) Emphasis of the core idea is on plants and algae using energy from light to make sugars (food for themselves and as an energy source for other organisms) from carbon dioxide (from air) and water; and in the process release oxygen.3
Patterns in the Sky; Sun & Other Stars; Earth's Orbit & Rotation;MNAcademic Standards33E.2.1.1.1Record observations of the sun, moon, and stars and use them to describe patterns that can be predicted.** (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: ESS1)  Examples of patterns may include that the sun and moon appear to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set; and stars other than our sun are visible at night but not during the day.2
Parts of a Plant; External Animal Parts;MNAcademic Standards11L.3.1.1.1Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent how plants or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs. (P: 2, CC: 6, CI: LS1) Examples of external parts may include acorn shells, plant roots, thorns on branches, turtle shells, animal scales, animal tails, and animal quills.1
Particle Nature of Matter;MNAcademic Standards55P.3.1.1 1Develop and refine a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen. (P: 2, CC: 3, CI: PS1)  Examples of evidence supporting a model may include adding air to expand a basketball, compressing air in a syringe, dissolving sugar in water, and evaporating salt water.2
Oceans, Lakes & Rivers;MNAcademic Standards22E.4.2.1.1Obtain and use information from multiple sources to identify where water is found on Earth. (P: 8, CC: 1, CI: ESS2) Emphasis of the practice is on learning how to use texts and maps to integrate and evaluate content. Examples may include liquid water in oceans, lakes, rivers, and ponds; and solid water in glaciers and polar ice caps.1
Newton’s Laws of Motion;MNAcademic Standards88P.1.2.1.2Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. (P: 3, CC: 7, CI: PS2)  Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.3
Newton’s Laws of Motion;MNAcademic Standards88P.3.2.2.2Design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects using Newton’s 3rd Law.* (P: 6, CC: 4, CI: PS2, ETS1)   Examples of practical problems may include the impact of one dimensional collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.  3
Natural Selection;MNAcademic Standards77L.2.2.1.1Use an algorithm to explain how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations.** (P: 5, CC: 2, CI: LS4) Emphasis is on using proportional reasoning to develop mathematical models, probability statements, or simulations to support explanations of trends in changes to populations over time.3
Natural Selection;MNAcademic Standards77L.3.2.1.4Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment. (P: 6, CC: 2, CI: LS4) Emphasis is on using simple probability statements and proportional reasoning to construct explanations.3
Natural Selection;MNAcademic Standards77L.4.1.1.2Support or refute an explanation by arguing from evidence and scientific reasoning for how animal behavior and plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction. (P: 7, CC: 2, CI: LS1) Examples of behaviors that affect the probability of animal reproduction may include nest building to protect young, herding of animals to protect young from predators, and vocalization and/or colorful plumage to attract mates for breeding. Examples of animal behaviors that affect the probability of plant reproduction may include transferring pollen or seeds, and creating conditions for seed germination and growth. Examples of plant structures may include bright flowers attracting butterflies that transfer pollen, flower nectar and odors that attract insects that transfer pollen, and hard shells on nuts that squirrels bury.3
Natural Resources; Reducing Our Impact on Earth;MNAcademic StandardsK0E.1.1.1.2Ask questions about how a person may reduce the amount of natural resources the individual uses.* (P: 1, CC: 2, CI: ESS3) Examples of questions may include reusing paper to reduce the number of trees cut down and recycling cans and bottles to reduce the amount of plastic, glass, or metal used.1
Natural Resource Distribution;MNAcademic Standards66E.3.2.1.2Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distribution of Earth's mineral, energy, or groundwater resources is the result of past geological processes. (P: 6, CC: 2, CI: ESS3) Emphasis is on how these resources are limited and typically non-renewable on a human timeframe.  Examples of uneven distribution of resources may include petroleum (like in the North Dakota Bakken Shale), metal ores (like iron in the rocks of Minnesota's Iron Range), or groundwater in the different regions of Minnesota.3
Multicellular Organisms; Plant & Animal Cells;MNAcademic Standards77L.1.2.1.1Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. (P: 3, CC: 3, CI: LS1) Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living things, and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or of many and varied cells.
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Multicellular Organisms;MNAcademic Standards77L.1.1.1.1Ask questions about the processes and outcomes of various methods of communication between cells of multicellular organisms. (P: 1, CC: 6, CI: LS1) Examples of questions about processes and outcomes may include questions about disruptions to normal communication processes in the human body, such as in cancer, diabetes, paralysis, or other disorders.3
Multicellular Organisms;MNAcademic Standards77L.4.1.1.1Support or refute an explanation by arguing from evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells. (P: 7, CC: 4, CI: LS1) Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding that cells form tissues and tissues form organs specialized for particular body functions. Examples may include arguments that deal with the interaction of subsystems within a system and the normal functioning of those systems.3
Material Properties & Purposes;MNAcademic Standards11P.2.1.1.1Identify and describe patterns obtained from testing different materials and determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for producing and/or transmitting sound.* (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: PS1, ETS1) Examples of materials may be wood, paper, string, plastics, cloth, etc.1
Maintaining Biodiversity;MNAcademic Standards77L.4.1.2.2Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity or ecosystem services.* (P: 7, CC: 2, CI: LS2, ETS2) Emphasis is on evaluating a solution that reduces environmental harm while still benefiting humans. Examples of ecosystem services (natural processes within ecosystems that humans also benefit from) may include water purification as it cycles through Earth’s systems, nutrient recycling, climate stabilization, decomposition of wastes, and pollination. Examples of design solution constraints may include scientific, economic, and social considerations.3
Magnets & Static Electricity;MNAcademic Standards44P.1.1.1.1Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric and magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other. (P: 1, CC: 2, CI: PS2)  Examples of an electric force may include the force on hair from an electrically charged balloon and the electrical forces between a charged rod and pieces of paper; examples of a magnetic force may include the force between two permanent magnets, the force between an electromagnet and steel paper clips, and the force exerted by one magnet versus the force exerted by two magnets. Examples of cause and effect relationships may include how the distance between objects affects the strength of the force and how the orientation of magnets affects the direction of the magnetic force.2
Magnets & Static Electricity;MNAcademic Standards44P.1.1.2.1Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.* (P: 1, CC: 2, CI: PS2, ETS2)  Examples of problems may include constructing a latch to keep the door shut and creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other.2
Living Things Change Their Environment;MNAcademic Standards11E.4.1.1.1Construct an argument based on observational evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the non-living aspects of the environment to meet their needs. (P: 7, CC: 4, CI: ESS2)  Examples of plants and animals changing their environment may include a squirrel digging in the ground to hide its food and tree roots breaking concrete.1
Light Reflection & Vision;MNAcademic Standards33P.3.1.1.1Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen. (P: 2, CC: 2, CI: PS4) Examples of models may include diagrams, drawings, physical models, or computer programs.2
Introduction to Weather;MNAcademic StandardsK0E.1.1.1.1Ask questions to obtain information from weather forecasts to prepare for and respond to severe weather.* (P: 1, CC: 7, CI: ESS3, ETS2) Emphasis is on local forms of severe weather that may arise quickly and should include examples of engineered solutions to severe weather (such as clothing to wear or places to safely shelter).1
Introduction to Traits;MNAcademic Standards11L.1.1.1.1Ask questions based on observations about the similarities and differences between young plants and animals and their parents. (P: 1, CC: 2, CI: LS3) Examples of observations may include leaves from the same kind of plant are the same shape but can differ in size; and a particular breed of dog looks like its parents but is not exactly the same.1
Introduction to Sound;MNAcademic Standards11P.1.2.1.1Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate. (P: 3, CC: 2, CI: PS4)  Examples of vibrating materials that make sound may include tuning forks and plucking a stretched string. Examples of how sound can make matter vibrate may include holding a piece of paper near a speaker making sound and holding an object near a vibrating tuning fork.1
Introduction to Light;MNAcademic Standards33P.1.1.1.1Ask questions based on observations about why objects in darkness can be seen only when illuminated. (P: 1, CC: 2, CI: PS4) Emphasis should be on addressing the misconception that people can see in the dark if they wait long enough and  on the way eyes receive light. Examples of observations may include those made in a completely dark room, a pinhole box, and a video of a cave explorer with a flashlight. 2
Introduction to Light;MNAcademic Standards33P.1.2.1 1Plan and conduct a controlled investigation to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light. (P: 3, CC: 2, CI: PS4)  Emphasis is on conducting fair tests by controlling variables. Examples of materials may include those that are transparent (such as clear plastic), translucent (such as wax paper), opaque (such as cardboard), and reflective (such as a mirror).2
Intro to Thermal Energy;MNAcademic Standards88P.1.2.1.1Plan and conduct  an investigation of changes in pure substances when thermal energy is added  or removed and relate those changes to particle motion. (P: 3, CC: 2,  CI: PS1) Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. 3
Intro to Thermal Energy;MNAcademic Standards88P.3.2.1.1Construct an explanation based on evidence and scientific principles of a common phenomenon that can be explained by the motions of molecules. (P: 6, CC: 3, CI: PS1) Emphasis of the core idea is that the movement of small particles (atoms or molecules) can explain the behavior of macroscopic phenomena. Examples of phenomena may include expansion of balloons, diffusion of odors, and pressure changes in gases due to heating and cooling. 3
Intro to Climate Change;MNAcademic Standards66E.1.1.1.3Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century. (P: 1, CC: 7, CI: ESS3) Emphasis is on the major role that human activities play in causing the rise in global temperatures. Examples of factors include human activities (such as fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and agricultural activity) and natural processes (such as changes in incoming solar radiation or volcanic activity). Examples of evidence can include tables, graphs, and maps of global and regional temperatures, atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the rates of human activities. 3
Interactions of Earth’s SpheresMNAcademic Standards44E.3.1.1.1Develop a model based in part on student observations or data to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere interact. (P: 2, CC: 4, CI: ESS2)  Emphasis is on how rock, living things, water, and/or air are individual systems that make up the larger Earth system and interact with each other. 2
Inspired by Nature (Biomimicry);MNAcademic Standards11L.3.2.2.2Plan and design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.* (P: 6, CC: 6, CI: LS1, ETS2) Examples of human problems that can be solved by mimicking plant or animal solutions may include designing clothing or equipment to protect bicyclists by mimicking turtle shells, acorn shells, and animal scales; stabilizing structures by mimicking animal tails and roots on plants; keeping out intruders by mimicking thorns on branches and animal quills, and detecting intruders by mimicking eyes and ears.1
Human Impacts on the Environment;MNAcademic Standards66E.3.2.1.3Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.* (P: 6, CC: 2, CI: ESS3, ETS1)  Emphasis of the practice  is on applying scientific principles about Earth’s natural processes (like how water moves through the ground and air) to designing solutions to  problems caused by human activity. Emphasis of the core idea is on how human activity impacts Earth’s environments. Examples of parts of the design process may include assessing the kinds of solutions that are feasible, and designing and evaluating solutions that may reduce those impacts. Examples of human activities that impact the environment may include withdrawing too much water from aquifers, altering stream flow by building dams or levees, increasing runoff caused by impermeable surfaces like parking lots, or adding undesirable materials to the air, water or land. 3
How Do We Use Food; Food Webs;MNAcademic Standards55P.3.1.1.2Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth, and motion and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun. (P: 2, CC: 5, CI: PS3) Examples of models may include diagrams, and flow charts.2
How Do We Use Food;MNAcademic Standards55L.1.2.1.4Plan and conduct an investigation to obtain evidence that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water. (P: 3, CC: 5, CI: LS1) Examples of plants may include aquatic plants that grow without soil. Examples of observational evidence may include growth patterns for plants grown in different environments.2
Heating & Cooling;MNAcademic Standards22P.1.2.1.1Plan and conduct an investigation to describe how heating and cooling affects different kinds of materials based upon their observable properties. (P: 3, CC: 1, CI: PS1) Examples of materials may include metals, cloth, plastics, styrofoam, wood and glass. 1
Heating & Cooling;MNAcademic Standards22P.3.1.1.1Develop a simple diagram or physical model to illustrate how some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot.** (P: 2, CC: 2, CI: PS3) Examples of reversible changes may include materials such as water and butter at different temperatures. Examples of irreversible changes may include cooking an egg, freezing a plant leaf, and heating paper. Examples of diagrams may include a flow chart. 1
Heat: Transfer of Thermal Energy;MNAcademic Standards88P.1.2.1.4Plan and conduct an investigation to determine how the temperature of a substance is affected by the transfer of  energy, the amount of mass, and the type of matter. (P: 3, CC: 2, CI: PS 3) Emphasis is on conceptualizing temperature as the average kinetic energy of a substance’s particles. Examples of investigations may include  comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melt in equal volumes of water with the same initial temperature, and temperature changes of different materials with the same mass as they heat or cool in the environment.3
Heat: Transfer of Thermal Energy;MNAcademic Standards88P.3.2.2.1Construct, test and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.* (P: 6, CC: 5, CI: PS1, ETS1)  Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of chemical reactions include  dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride in water.3
Heat: Transfer of Thermal Energy;MNAcademic Standards88P.3.2.2.3Design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.* (P: 6, CC: 5, CI: PS3, ETS1) Emphasis is on using scientific principles to design the device. Examples of devices may include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a foam cup.3
Habitats;MNAcademic StandardsK0L.3.1.1.1Develop a simple model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants and animals (including humans) and the places they live. (P: 2, CC: 4, CI: LS2) Examples of relationships may include that deer eat buds and leaves, therefore, they usually live in forested areas; and grasses need sunlight, so they often grow in meadows. Examples of models may include food chains, collages, and/or sorting activities./a1
Gravitational Forces Between Objects;MNAcademic Standards88P.4.1.1.1Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. (P: 7, CC: 3, CI: PS2) Examples of evidence for arguments may include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system. Not included are Newton’s Law of Gravitation or Kepler’s Laws.3
Genes & Mutations;MNAcademic Standards77L.1.1.1.2Ask questions that arise from careful observations of phenomena or models to clarify and or seek additional information about how changes in genes can affect organisms. (P: 1, CC: 6, CI: LS3) Examples of changes may include neutral, harmful, or beneficial effects to the structure and function of the organism.3
Four Seasons and Day Length; Introduction to Weather;MNAcademic Standards22E.2.1.1.1Represent data to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season. (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: ESS2)  Examples of data may include temperature, precipitation, and wind direction. Data displays can include pictographs and bar graphs.1
Four Seasons and Day Length; Causes of Seasons;MNAcademic Standards33E.2.2.1.1Organize and electronically present collected data to identify and describe patterns in the amount of daylight in the different times of the year.** (P: 5, CC: 1, CI: ESS1) Emphasis is on relative comparisons of the amount of daylight in the winter to the amount in the spring or fall.2
Four Seasons and Day Length;MNAcademic StandardsK0E.2.1.1.2Make daily and seasonal observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time.** (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: ESS2) Examples of qualitative observations may include descriptions of the weather (such as sunny, cloudy, rainy, and warm). Examples of quantitative observations may include numbers of sunny, windy, and rainy days in a month. Examples of patterns may include that it is usually cooler in the morning than in the afternoon and that different months have different numbers of sunny days versus cloudy days in different months.1
Food Webs;MNAcademic Standards55L.3.1.1.3Create an electronic visualization of the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.** (P: 2, CC: 4, CI: LS2) Emphasis is on the idea that matter that is not food is changed by plants into matter that is food. Examples of systems through which matter cycles may include organisms, ecosystems, and the Earth. Examples of an electronic visualization may include a computer program, simulation, or animation. 2
Food Webs: Cycling of Matter & Flow of Energy;MNAcademic Standards77L.3.1.1.2Develop and use a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism. (P: 2, CC: 5, CI: LS1) Emphasis is on describing that molecules are broken apart and put back together and that in this process, energy is released. Examples may include models of sugar breakdown into molecules of glucose that power our bodies, or protein breakdown into amino acids that are later reassembled to create body structures.3
Food Webs: Cycling of Matter & Flow of Energy;MNAcademic Standards77L.3.1.1.3Develop and use a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. (P: 2, CC: 5, CI: LS2) Emphasis is on describing the conservation of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems.3
Extreme Weather Solutions;MNAcademic Standards44E.3.2.2.1Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.* (P: 6, CC: 2, CI: ESS3, ETS1) Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships to explain change. Examples of solutions may include designing an earthquake resistant building and improving monitoring of volcanic activity. 2
Energy Transfer;MNAcademic Standards55P.2.1.1.1Analyze and interpret data to show that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents. (P: 4, CC: 5, CI: PS3) Emphasis of the practice is on analyzing student observations and data to serve as evidence to support a claim.2
Energy Transfer;MNAcademic Standards55P.3.2.2 1Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.* (P: 6, CC: 5, CI: PS3, ETS1, ETS2) Examples of devices may include electric circuits that convert electrical energy into motion, light, or sound; and a passive solar heater that converts light into heat. Examples of constraints may include the materials, cost, or time to design the device.2
Electric & Magnetic Fields;MNAcademic Standards88P.1.1.1.2Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces. (P: 1, CC: 2, CI: PS2)  Examples of data may include the number of turns of wire in a coil, the strength of magnets, and the current through the wire and their effect on the speed of rotation in a simple motor.3
Electric & Magnetic Fields;MNAcademic Standards88P.1.2.1.3Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.  (P: 3, CC: 2, CI: PS2) Examples of this phenomenon may include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations may include first-hand experiences or simulations.3
Earth's Orbit & Rotation;MNAcademic Standards55E.2.2.1.2Use data to describe patterns in the daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.** (P: 5, CC: 1, CI: ESS1)  Examples of patterns may include the number of daylight hours over the course of a year, selected stars that are visible only in particular months, and the length and direction of shadows over a year.2
Earth’s Landscapes; Rock Layers (Geologic Time);MNAcademic Standards44E.3.2.1 1Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time. (P: 6, CC: 1, CI: ESS1) Examples of evidence from patterns may include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river cut through the rock. 2
Digital vs. Analog SignalsMNAcademic Standards88P.4.2.1.2Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals.** (P: 8, CC: 6, CI: PS4) Emphasis of the practice is on using information to support and clarify claims. Emphasis of the core idea is on understanding that waves (encoded both analog and digitally) can be used for communication purposes. Examples of encoding and transmitting information may include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in wifi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.3
Conservation of Matter;MNAcademic Standards55P.2.2.1.1Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved. (P: 5, CC: 3, CI: PS1)  Examples of reactions or changes may include phase changes, dissolving, and mixing to form new substances. Mass and weight are not distinguished.2
Competition in Ecosystems;MNAcademic Standards77L.2.1.1.1Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.** (P: 4, CC: 2, CI: LS2) Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the number or organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources. Examples may include populations of MN deer, moose, wolf, scavengers or aquatic populations in Lake Superior or algal blooms in lakes and ponds. Examples of evidence may include the use of flow charts to organize and sequence the algorithm, and to show relationships.3
Competition in Ecosystems;MNAcademic Standards77L.3.2.1.1Construct an explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms and/or populations. (P: 6, CC: 2, CI: LS1, ETS2)  Examples of environmental factors may include local environmental conditions such as  availability of food, light, space, and water. Examples of genetic factors may include large breed cattle and species of grass affecting growth of organisms. Examples of evidence may include drought decreasing plant growth, fertilizer increasing plant growth, different varieties of plant seeds growing at different rates in different conditions, and fish growing larger in large ponds than they do in small ponds. Examples of human activity may  include agricultural practices, phosphorus and nitrogen loading in lakes, hybridization and breeding practices.3
Competition in Ecosystems;MNAcademic Standards77L.4.1.2.1Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes in physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.* (P: 7, CC: 7, CI: LS2) Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes and/or impacts to ecosystems. Examples of physical components may include human-built structures like urban developments, or dams.3
Comparative Anatomy;MNAcademic Standards77L.2.1.1.3Analyze visual data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.** (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: LS4) Emphasis is on inferring general patterns of relatedness among embryos of different organisms by comparing their macroscopic appearances on diagrams or pictures.3
Comparative Anatomy;MNAcademic Standards77L.3.2.1.3Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships. (P: 6, CC: 1, CI: LS4) Emphasis is on explanations of the evolutionary relationships among organisms in terms of similarity of differences of the gross appearance of anatomical structures.3
Communication Over Distances;MNAcademic Standards11P.3.2.2.1Design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.* (P: 6, CC: 6, CI: PS4, ETS1, ETS2) Examples of devices may include paper cup and string “telephones” and a pattern of drum beats.1
Collisions;MNAcademic Standards55P.1.1.1.1Ask investigatable questions and predict reasonable outcomes about the changes in energy, related to speed, that occur when objects interact. (P: 1, CC: 5, CI: PS3)  Emphasis is on the change in energy due to a change in speed, not on the forces, as objects interact.  Example of a question: Where and how do marbles move after a collision?2
Collisions;MNAcademic Standards55P.3.2.1.1Construct an explanation based on evidence relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object. (P: 6, CC: 5, CI: PS3). The emphasis of the practice is on students identifying the evidence that supports particular points in the explanation. Examples of evidence may include the damage and the height attained when going up a ramp.2
Classification of Materials;MNAcademic StandardsK0P.2.1.1.1Sort objects in terms of natural/human-made, color, size, shape, and texture, then communicate the reasoning for the sorting system. (P: 4, CC: 2, CI: PS1) Emphasis is on using observations to describe patterns and/or relationships in the natural and designed world in order to order to answer scientific qustions and solve problems.1
Chemical vs. Physical Changes;MNAcademic Standards55P.1.2.1.2Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances. (P: 3, CC: 2, CI: PS1) Emphasis is on conducting fair tests by controlling variables.2
Chemical Reactions; Synthetic Materials;MNAcademic Standards88P.3.1.1.2Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. (P: 2, CC: 5, CI: PS1)  Emphasis is on the law of conservation of matter. Examples of models may include physical models, digital formats, or drawings, which represent atoms. Not included are atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.3
Chemical Reactions;MNAcademic Standards88P.2.1.1.1Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred. (P: 4, CC: 1, CI: PS1)  Examples of reactions may include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride. Examples of properties may include density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.3
Changing the Shape of Land;MNAcademic Standards11E.4.1.2.1Construct an argument with evidence to evaluate multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land.* (P: 7, CC: 7, CI: ESS2, ETS2)  Examples of solutions could include different designs of dikes and windbreaks to hold back wind and water; and different designs for using shrubs, grass, and trees to hold back the land.1
Biodiversity of Life on Earth;MNAcademic StandardsK0L.1.2.1.2Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats. (P: 3, CC: 1, CI: LS4) Emphasis is on the diversity of living things in a variety of different habitats and patterns across those habitats.1
Balanced & Unbalanced Forces; Pushes & Pulls;MNAcademic Standards22P.2.2.1.1Identify and predict quantitative patterns of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.** (P: 5, CC: F412, CI: PS2) Examples may include an unbalanced force on one side of a ball can make it start moving; and balanced forces pushing on a box from both sides will not produce any motion at all. Data displays may include pictographs and bar graphs.1
Atoms & Molecules;MNAcademic Standards88P.3.1.1.1Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and crystals. (P: 2, CC: 3, CI: PS1)  Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules may include ammonia and methane. Examples of crystal structures may include sodium chloride or quartz, pyrite or diamonds. Does not include valence electrons and bonding energy, discussing the ionic nature of subunits of complex structures, or a complete description of all individual atoms in a complex molecule or crystal structure.3
Animals Help Their Babies Survive;MNAcademic Standards11L.4.2.1.2Obtain information using various features of texts and other media to determine patterns in the behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive. (P: 8, CC: 1, CI: LS1) Examples of text features include headings, glossaries, electronic menus, pictures, illustrations, icons, etc. Examples of behavior patterns may include the signals that offspring make (such as crying, chirping, and other vocalizations) and the responses of the parents (such as feeding, comforting, and protecting the offspring).1
Animal & Plant Life Cycles;MNAcademic Standards33L.3.1.1.2Develop multiple models to describe how organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have birth, growth, reproduction, and death in common. (P: 2, CC: 4, CI: LS1) Emphasis is on the pattern of changes organisms go through during their life. Examples of models may include diagrams, drawings, physical models, or computer programs.2
Air Masses & Weather Fronts;MNAcademic Standards66E.1.2.1.1Collect data and use digital data analysis tools to identify patterns to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions.** (P: 3, CC: 2, CI: ESS2) Emphasis is on how weather at a fixed location changes in response to moving air masses and to interactions at frontal boundaries between air masses. Examples of weather data may include temperature, air pressure, precipitation, and wind. Examples of data analysis may include weather maps, diagrams, and visualizations or may be obtained through laboratory experiments (such as with condensation).3
Adaptations and the Environment; Variations of Traits;MNAcademic Standards44L.4.1.1.1Construct or support an argument that traits can be influenced by different environments. (P: 7, CC: 2, CI: LS3) Emphasis of the practice is on using evidence, data and/or a model to support an argument. Examples of the environment affecting a trait may include the stunted growth of a typically tall plant grown with insufficient water or an animal’s weight being influenced by the availability of food. 2
Adaptations and the Environment; Animal Group Behavior;MNAcademic Standards33L.4.1.1.1Construct an argument about strategies animals use to survive. (P: 7, CC: 2, CI: LS2) Emphasis is on group behavior and how being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves, and cope with changes. Examples of animals should include wolves or other animals that live in Minnesota.2
Adaptations and the Environment;MNAcademic Standards55L.4.1.2.1Evaluate the merit of a solution to a problem caused by changes in plant and animal populations as a result of environmental changes.* (P: 7, CC: 4, CI: LS4, ETS1) Emphasis is on evaluating solutions (based on evidence and design criteria and constraints), not developing new solutions. Examples of environmental changes may include land characteristics, water distribution, temperature, food availability, or the presence of other organisms.2
MNAcademic Standards11P.4.2.2.1Communicate solutions that use materials to provide shelter, food, or warmth needs for communities including Minnesota American Indian tribes and communities.* (P: 8, CC: 2, CI: PS1, ETS2) Examples of cultures may include those within the local context of the learning community and within the context of Minnesota. Examples of solutions may include past and current building practices that incorporate natural building materials and other green practices as used in sweat lodges, green roofs, moss used for insulation, or sustainable food production and tools used for ricing (harvesting and finishing)./1
MNAcademic Standards22E.2.1.1.2Analyze data from tests of objects designed to reduce the impacts of a weather-related hazards and compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs.* (P: 4, CC: 2, CI: ESS3, ETS1) Emphasis is on data from tests of student-designed objects. Examples of design solutions to weather-related hazards may include barriers to prevent flooding or snow drifting, structures for sun shading, materials for clothing, and orientation of  bus shelters.1
Adaptations and the Environment;MNAcademic Standards22L.4.1.1.1Construct an argument with evidence that evaluates how in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all. (P: 7, CC: 2, CI: LS4, ETS2) Emphasis is on the interdependence of parts of a system (organisms and their habitat). Examples of habitats should include those found in Minnesota, such as a wetland, prairie, or garden. Examples of evidence may include needs and characteristics of the organisms and habitats involved. 1
MNAcademic Standards22P.4.2.2.1Obtain information and communicate how Minnesota American Indian Tribes and communities and other cultures apply knowledge of the natural world in determining which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.* (P: 8, CC: 2, CI: PS1, ETS1) Examples of cultures may include those within the local context of the learning community and within the context of Minnesota. Emphasis of the practice is on obtaining, interpreting, and communicating information related to how various cultures have built materials suited for intended purposes according to their properties. Examples of materials may include instruments (Cedar for knockers and Black Spruce for poles) for ricing, birch bark for baskets or other containers for carrying water, and sinew for connecting parts of tools.  1
MNAcademic Standards33E.4.2.2.1Gather information and communicate how Minnesota American Indian Tribes and communities and other cultures use patterns in stars to make predictions and plans. (P 8, CC: 1, CI: ESS1) Examples of cultures may include those within the local context of the learning community and within the context of Minnesota. Examples may include using star maps to predict seasons, star patterns to inform navigation, and using star stories to identify numeric patterns that guide behavior.2
MNAcademic Standards44E.1.2.1.2Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to improve a model or prototype to prevent erosion.* (P: 3, CC: 2, CI: ESS2, ETS1; ETS2)  Examples of prototypes to prevent erosion include retaining walls, wind breaks, use of shrubs or other vegetation, and drainage systems.2
MNAcademic Standards44E.4.2.2.1Obtain and combine multiple sources of information about ways individual communities, including Minnesota American Indian Tribes and communities and other cultures use evidence and scientific principles to make decisions about the uses of Earth’s resources.* (P: 8, CC: 4, CI: ESS3, ETS1) Examples of cultures may include those within the local context of the learning community and within the context of Minnesota. Examples may include balancing the water, soil, wildlife, plant, and human needs to support sustainable use of resources.2
MNAcademic Standards77L.4.2.2.1Gather multiple sources of information and communicate how Minnesota American Indian Tribes and communities and other cultures use knowledge to predict or interpret patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. (P: 8,  CC: 1, CI: LS2, ETS2) Examples of cultures may include those within the local context of the learning community and within the context of Minnesota. Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions may include competition, predation and mutualisms.3
MNAcademic Standards88P.2.2.1.2Create a computer program to illustrate the transfer of energy within a system where energy changes form.** (P: 5, CC: 7, CI: PS3) Emphasis of the programming skills is the use of sequences, events and conditionals. Examples of a system may include a roller coaster, a pendulum, an electric water heater, and a solar electric collector.3

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